Nana Addo Dankwa Akufo-Addo (born 29 March 1944, in Swalaba, Accra) is a Ghanaian politician who ran for President of Ghana in the 2008 and 2012 presidential elections as the New Patriotic Party candidate. He is currently the NPP flag bearer for the 2016 elections. He is from Kyebi in the Eastern Region (Ghana). He is married to Rebecca Akufo-Addo (née Griffiths-Randolph). They have five daughters and two grandchildren.
Early life and education
Nana Akufo-Addo was raised in Ga Maami (Accra Central) and in the Nima area of Accra. His father's residence, Betty House at Korle Wokon in Accra, was effectively the headquarters of the country's first political party, the United Gold Coast Convention (UGCC), after it was formed at Saltpond on 4 August 1947. Three of the "Big Six" — the founding fathers of Ghana — were his relatives: J. B. Danquah (grand uncle), William Ofori Atta (uncle) and Edward Akufo-Addo (the third Chief Justice of Ghana and later ceremonial President of the Republic from 1969 to 1972), who was his father.
Nana Addo received his primary education at the Government Boys School and went to Orielly Secondary School, and later at the Rowe Road School (now Kimbu), both in Accra Central. He went to England to study for his O‑Level and A‑Level examinations at Lancing College, Sussex. He returned to Ghana in 1962 to teach at the Accra Academy before going to read Economics at the University of Ghana, Legon, in 1964, earning a BSc(Econ) degree in 1967. He subsequently studied law in the UK and was called to the English Bar (Middle Temple) in July 1971. Akufo-Addo was called to the Ghana bar in July 1975 along with notable Ghanaian politicians such as Nana Ato Dadzie and Tsatsu Tsikata.
Legal and business career
Akufo-Addo stayed in France for three years as a lawyer at the now-defunct New York-based international law firm Coudert Brothers. Apart from the welcome exposure to the dynamics of international corporate transactions, his stay in France also made him fluent in French.
In 1975, he returned home to Accra to continue with his legal career. He joined the chambers of U. V. Campbell from 1975 to 1979, and in 1979 co-founded the law firm Akufo-Addo, Prempeh & Co, which has become one of the most prominent law firms in Ghana.
Some Ghanaian lawyers who passed through his law firm are among the most outstanding lawyers at the Ghanaian Bar today. They include Sophia Akuffo, Justice of the Supreme Court, Joyce Darko, Daniel Afari Yeboah, Philip Addison, Joe Ghartey, a former Attorney General and Minister for Justice, Alex Quaynor, Frank Davies, Kweku Paintsil, Ursula Owusu, Atta Akyea, Akufo-Addo’s successor as MP for Abuakwa South Constituency, Akoto Ampaw, Yoni Kulendi, Kwame Akuffo, Kwaku Asirifi, and Godfrey Dame.
Akufo-Addo has served on the boards and committees of a number of political, legal, and social organizations in the country. He was the first Chairperson of DHL, Ghana Limited; Chairperson, Kinesec Communications Company Limited, publishers of The Statesman and the first Chairperson of the Ghana Committee on Human and Peoples' Rights.
Like the “Doyen of Gold Coast politics”, J. B. Danquah, and others before him, Akufo-Addo used his law practice to champion the cause of human rights, rule of law, justice, freedom, and democracy. He was well known for giving free legal assistance to the poor and fought for the rights and liberties of the Ghanaian people. Indeed, many of the important constitutional cases of the modern era, which, inter alia, protected the independence of the judiciary and the right of the citizen to demonstrate without police permit, were undertaken by him. He is acknowledged as one of the leaders of the pro-democracy movement in Ghana.
At the age of 33, Akufo-Addo became the General Secretary of the broad-based People’s Movement for Freedom and Justice (PMFJ), which was composed of political stalwarts such as Akwasi Amankwa Afrifa, William Ofori-Atta, Komla Agbeli Gbedemah, Adu Boahen, Sam Okudzeto, Obed Asamoah, Godfrey Agama, K. S. P. Jantuah, Jones Ofori-Atta, Johnny Hanson and Nii Amaah Amartefio ("Mr. No"). This group led the "NO" campaign in the UNIGOV referendum of 1978, ultimately bringing about the downfall of the Acheampong military government on 5 July 1978, and the restoration of multiparty democratic rule to the country in 1979. Akufo-Addo had to go briefly into exile after the referendum, when his life was in danger. But, from Europe, he could be heard constantly on the BBC World Service, fighting against the military rulers back in Ghana and calling for a return to democracy.
In 1991, Akufo-Addo was the chairman of the Organising Committee of the Danquah-Busia Memorial Club, a club dedicated to the preservation of the memory and ideals of the two great advocates of Ghanaian democracy, J. B. Danquah and K. A. Busia, Prime Minister of the Progress Party government of the 2nd Republic of Ghana. Akufo-Addo travelled throughout Ghana to establish branches of the Club all over the country in the grassroots style for which he is known. These branches eventually transformed into local organs of the NPP after the ban on party politics was lifted, prior to the elections of 1993.
In 1992 he became the first national organiser of the NPP and, later that year, campaign manager of the party's first presidential candidate, Prof. Albert Adu Boahen, the man of courage who broke the “culture of silence” in Ghana.
In 1992 Akufo-Addo set up and financed The Statesman newspaper, which has become the unofficial mouthpiece of the NPP.
In 1995 he led the famous “Kume Preko” demonstrations of the Alliance For Change (AFC), a broad-based political pressure group, which mobilised thousands of people onto the streets of Ghana to protest the Value Added Tax (VAT) initiative which was being introduced by the government of Ghana under the then President Rawlings. Some pundits in Ghana believe that this was instrumental in re-establishing the New Patriotic Party as more formidable force after Prof Adu Boahen
Member of Parliament
Akufo-Addo was elected three times between 1996 and 2004 as Member of Parliament for the Abuakwa South constituency in the Eastern region of Ghana. From 2001 to 2007, as Cabinet Minister, first as Attorney-General and Minister for Justice and later as Foreign Minister for five years, Akufo-Addo served in the government of President Kufuor with distinction.
As Attorney-General, he was responsible for the repeal of the Criminal Libel Law, which had been used to intimidate the media and criminalise free speech. The repeal has enabled the Ghanaian media to become one of the most vibrant and freest in Africa. Under his chairmanship of the Legal Sector Reform Committee, the implementation of the court automation programme was initiated.
As Foreign Minister, he was fully involved in the successful Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) peace efforts in Sierra Leone, Liberia, Ivory Coast, and Guinea Bissau, and was chairman of the ECOWAS Mediation and Security Council in 2003.
In 2004 Ghana was elected one of the 15 pioneer members of the African Union (AU) Peace and Security Council, a mandate which was renewed at the AU Summit in Khartoum in January 2006. Akufo-Addo was chosen by his peers on the AU Executive Council to chair the Ministerial Committee of 15 that fashioned the Ezulwini Consensus, which defined the African Union’s common position on UN Reforms. He negotiated for the 2007 AU Summit to be held in Accra as part of Ghana’s Golden Jubilee celebrations, and chaired the AU Executive Council in 2007.
Ghana was elected by her peers to take the non-permanent West African seat on the UN Security Council for 2006-07. In August 2006, Akufo-Addo chaired the meeting of the Security Council which took the decision that halted Israel’s massive incursions into Lebanon. Again, Ghana was elected to the new UN body, the Human Rights Council, with the highest number of votes—183 out of 191—of any country, and as a pioneer member of another UN body, the Peacebuilding Commission.
In October 1998, Nana Akufo Addo competed for the presidential candidacy of the NPP and lost to John Kufuor, the man who eventually won the presidential elections in Ghana in December 2000 and became the president of Ghana. In his bid to become the presidential candidate, party faithfuls like Christine Churcher backed him and even questioned whether John Kufuor had what it took to wrestle power from the National Democratic Congress. Ultimately, he was made Attorney General and Minister of Justice under the Kufuor Administration.
Akufo-Addo resigned from the Kufuor government in July 2007 to contest for the position of presidential candidate of his party, the New Patriotic Party (NPP), the then ruling party of Ghana, for the 2008 elections. Competing against 16 others, he won 48% of the votes in the first round of that election, but was given a unanimous endorsement in the second round, making him the party’s presidential candidate.
In the 7 December 2008 presidential race, in the first round he received more votes than John Atta Mills, the eventual winner. In the first round Akufo-Addo received 4,159,439 votes representing 49.13% of the total votes cast, placing him first, but not enough for the 50% needed for an outright victory. It was the best-ever performance for a first-time presidential candidate in the Fourth Republic. In the run-off Mills received 4,521,032 votes, representing 50.23%, thus beating Akufo-Addo. Akufo-Addo again contested in the 2012 national elections against the NDC candidate John Mahama and lost. In March 2014, Akufo-Addo announced that he would be seeking his party's nomination to run in the 2016 Presidential elections, confirming what some of his supporters had said publicly. He is regarded as the frontrunner in the bid to be the NPP's presidential candidate. However, Akufo-Addo took time off to serve as Chair of the Commonwealth Observer Mission for the South African elections in 2014, building on a reputation as Ghana's Former Foreign Minister and President of the UN Security Council.
Mahamudu Bawumia (born October 7, 1963) is an economist and banker. He was a Deputy Governor of the Bank of Ghana until his nomination as Vice Presidential candidate for the New Patriotic Party (NPP) Presidential candidate Nana Akufo-Addo in 2008. He also run as the vice-presidential candidate of the New Patriotic Party in Ghana's 2012 general elections and was the lead witness for the petitioners in the 2012/2013 Presidential Election Petition which challenged the declaration of John Mahama as winner of the Ghana's 2012 Presidential Election. He is married to Samira Ramadan and they have four children.
He was born on October 7, 1963 in Tamale to the late Alhaji Mumuni Bawumia, former Chairman of the Council of State (1992–2000) and Hajia Mariama Bawumia.
Bawumia's father Alhaji Mumuni Bawumia was a teacher, lawyer and politician, a Mamprugu Royal and Paramount Chief of the Kperiga Traditional Area at the time of his death in September 2002. He was a founding member of the Northern Peoples' Party alongside Chief S. D. Dombo, Chief Abeifa Karbo, Yakubu Tali, the Tolon Naa, and J. A. Braimah, Kabachewura.
The Northern Peoples Party, together with the National Liberation Movement and other opposition political parties later merged into the United Party, the forebear of the current New Patriotic Party.
Alhaji Bawumia served under various Ghanaian governments in various capacities, including member of the Northern Territories Council, the Gold Coast Legislative Assembly, a Member of Parliament of the First Republic, Northern Regional Minister, and Ghana Ambassador to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Alhaji Bawumia was in March 1999 awarded the highest national honour, membership of the Order of the Star of Ghana.
Mahamudu Bawumia’s mother, Hajia Mariama Bawumia, is a native of Kpasenkpe in the West Mamprusi District. She was one of the first northern female students to gain admission to Wesley Girls High School, Cape Coast.
Born into a large family, Mahamudu Bawumia was the twelfth of his father’s 18 children and the second of his mother’s five.
Mahamudu Bawumia attended the Sakasaka Primary school in Tamale, and gained admission to Tamale Secondary School in 1975. He was President of the Ghana United Nations Students’ Association (GUNSA) for 1981. After graduating from Tamale Secondary School, he went to the United Kingdom where he studied banking and obtained the Chartered Institute of Bankers Diploma (ACIB). He took a First Class Honours Degree in Economics at Buckingham University in 1987.
He then obtained a master's degree in Economics at Lincoln College, Oxford, and obtained a Ph.D. in Economics at the Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada in 1995. His areas of specialization include Macroeconomics, International Economics, Development Economics and Monetary Policy. He has numerous publications .
From 1988 to 1990, Bawumia worked as a lecturer in Monetary Economics, and International Finance at the Emile Woolf College of Accountancy in London, England. He also served as an economist at the Research Department of the International Monetary Fund in Washington, DC, USA.
Between 1996 and 2000, Bawumia served as an Assistant Professor of Economics at Hankamer School of Business, Baylor University, Texas, USA, where he also received the Young Researcher Award in 1998. He was listed in "Who is Who Among America’s Teachers' in 1999.
Bawumia returned to Ghana in 2000 to work as an economist at the Bank of Ghana. He rose from Senior Economist to Head of Department, and subsequently as Special Assistant to the Governor of the Bank. President J.A. Kufuor appointed Bawumia as Deputy Governor of the Bank of Ghana in June 2006.
At the Bank of Ghana Bawumia :
- As Head of the Monetary Policy and Financial Stability Department, he was part of the team that designed and implemented the inflation-targeting framework that continues to guide monetary policy and the workings of the Monetary Policy Committee at the Bank of Ghana. The inflation-targeting framework established reduced inflation from over 40% in 2000 to 10.2% by 2007 (i.e., before the oil price shock of 2007/2008) while maintaining relative exchange rate stability.
- Was part of the team that was instrumental in designing and implementing policy initiatives such as the abolition of the secondary reserve requirements and the opening up of the banking sector to competition. This resulted in a major increase in the availability of credit to the private sector from 12.5% of GDP in 2001 to 28.5% of GDP by 2008.
- Led Bank of Ghana’s technical negotiation team and was on the government team that negotiated with the World Bank and International Monetary Fund since 2001 through HIPC and PRGF. Partly as a result of these negotiations, Ghana by 2007 successfully ended its dependence on IMF assistance.
- Served as a member of the Government technical negotiating team on HIPC Paris Club and Completion Point Negotiations. Ghana completed the HIPC process successfully with significant debt relief of close to $4 billion.
- Was a member of the Government Team to Negotiate the Millennium Challenge Account Compact with the US Government. The MCA resulted in many significant projects such as the recently inaugurated George Bush Highway.
- Was a member of the Government Technical Team on the Deregulation of Ghana’s Petroleum Sector.
- As Chairman of the Capital Markets Committee, was responsible for the strategy for accessing the international capital markets with a debut US$750 million, which was four times oversubscribed.
- Was part of the team that designed and implemented the successful redenomination of the cedi. Through this process, the cedi was considerably strengthened. Significant savings were also made by the Bank of Ghana in currency printing costs.
- Was involved in the design and implementation of the e-zwich common platform for all banks, savings and loans companies and rural banks, offering interoperability across different financial institutions.
- As the deputy Governor in charge of financial stability, oversaw the soundness of the banking sector.
- As Deputy Governor Bawumia served on the Boards of the Bank of Ghana, Ghana International Bank (UK), Ghana Telecom, Revenue Agencies Governing Board, Social Security and National Insurance Trust.
Shortly after the 2008 election Bawumia resigned as Deputy Governor at the Bank of Ghana.
Mahamudu Bawumia was running mate to the New Patriotic Party candidate in the 2008 elections, Nana Akufo-Addo. The NPP increased its share of the vote compared to 2004 in all the three Northern Regions, in both the first and second round.
Bawumia served as a Consultant to the Economic Commission of Africa between February and March 2009. Between April and October 2009, he was a Visiting Scholar at the University of British Columbia Liu Centre for Global Studies and UBC Fisheries Centre. In October 2009, he was appointed as a Fellow of the International Growth Centre (IGC), a research institute based jointly at the London School of Economics and Political Science and Oxford University that provides advice on economic growth to governments of developing countries, specifically serving as an IGC Team Member for Sierra Leone. He also served as an Advisor to the Central Bank of Sierra Leone on the redesigning of the organizational structure of the Bank and its monetary policy framework.
Between October 2009 and October 2010, he was a Senior Research Associate at the Centre for the Study of African Economies, University of Oxford, Department of Economics. In January 2011 Bawumia was appointed Resident Representative of the African Development Bank for Zimbabwe by the African Development Bank. He served in this position until reappointed as the Vice-Presidential Candidate to Nana Akufo-Addo on the ticket of the New Patriotic Party for Ghana's 2012 Presidential Election.
Bawumia was re-nominated as the Vice-Presidential Candidate to Nana Akufo-Addo for the 2012 General Elections in March 2012. The Party won ten (10) seats in the Northern Region including Yendi, Walewale, Yagaba – Kubore, Bunkpurugu, Bimbilla, Chereponi, Kpandai, Tatale – Sanguli, Tolon and Zabzugu. It also won the Nabdam and Talensi Constituencies in the Upper East Region. Overall, Nana Akufo-Addo and Bawumia lost the Presidential Elections to incumbent John Dramani Mahama.
- "Monetary Policy And Financial Sector Reform In Africa: Ghana's Experience by Mahamudu Bawumia (Aug 31, 2010)
- “The Determination of Bank Interest Spreads in Ghana: An Empirical Analysis of Panel Data” with Martin Ofori and Franklin Belnye, September 2005.
- “Developing a Composite Indicator of Economic Activity in Ghana”, with Benjamin Amoah, Bank of Ghana Working Paper, February 2004.
- “A Simple Vector Error Correction Forecasting Model for Ghana”, with Joseph Atta-Mensah, Bank of Ghana Working Paper, August 2003.
- “Monetary Growth, Inflation and Exchange Rate Policy in Ghana" Research Department, Bank of Ghana, Journal of the West African Monetary Institute, 2003
- “The Transmission Mechanism for Monetary Policy in Ghana”, with Philip Abradu-Otoo, Bank of Ghana Policy Paper, August 2003.
- “The Determinants of Exchange Rates in Ghana”, with Zakari Mumuni. Bank of Ghana Working Paper. March, 2003.
- “The Feasibility of Monetary Union in West Africa”. Mimeo. Economic Commission for Africa, November 2002.
- “Comparative Institutional Features of Different Common Central Banks”, West African Monetary Institute. Mimeo. February, 2002.
- “Designing an Exchange Rate Mechanism for the West African Monetary Zone”, West African Monetary Institute. Mimeo. February 2002.
- “Explaining African Economic Growth Performance: The Case of Ghana”, with Ernest Aryeetey and A. Fosu. Paper prepared for the African Economic Research Consortium. April 2001.
- "Assessing the effectiveness of Intervention on the Foreign Exchange Market in Ghana". Research Department, Bank of Ghana, February 2000.
- "A Review of the Literature of the Impact of Financial Sector Liberalisation on the Poor", with Dr E.K.Y. Addison and Maxwell Opoku Afari, Research Department, Bank of Ghana, August 2000.
- "Financial Markets in Africa. Issues and Challenges for Research," with Professor Ernest Aryeetey, ISSER. October 2000 AERC .
- “Currency Substitution and Money Demand in Ghana: A Cointegration Analysis”. Research Department, Bank of Ghana, November 2000.
- "Why the Apparent Rush to Market Reform"? Journal of Economics, 1999.
- "The Sequencing of Fiscal Reform during Structural Adjustment. Lessons from Ghana, Uganda, and Zimbabwe", Comparative Economic Studies, Vol. XXXVIII No.2/3 Summer-Fall 1996
- “A Closer Look at The Distributional Impact of Ghana’s Structural Adjustment Program (1983–1992). Journal of Modern African Studies. Vol.36 No.1, March 1998
- “Estimating the Aggregate Values of Human Capital in Sub- Saharan Africa”, co-authored with Samuel A.Laryea. Review of Human Factor Studies. Vol. III No.1. June 1997
- "Africa, the Challenge of Development". Book Chapter in Stephen. Gardner's Comparative Economic Systems, Dryden 1999
Scholarships and awards
- 2007 — Fellow of the Chartered Institute of Bankers (FCIB).
- 2000 — Who Is Who Among America’s Teachers? - Baylor University.
- 1999 — Young Researcher Award: Baylor University, Texas, USA.
- 1995–1999 — President’s Research Fellowship: Ph.D. Simon Fraser University.
- 1991–1995 — 4 Graduate Fellowships: Ph.D. Simon Fraser University, Canada
- 1986 Sir Alan Peacock Prize. Best Economics Student, Department of Economics, University of Buckingham